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Plaintiff-appellee Indasu International, C.A. ("Indasu") commenced this diversity action in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (Broderick, J.) against Citibank, N.A. ("Citibank") claiming the face amount of a Carta de Garantia ("Guarantee"). The Guarantee was issued by Citibank as guarantor in favor of Indasu to ensure that Corporacion Estatal Petrolera Ecuatoriano ("CEPE") would enter into and perform a contract. Citibank twice moved unsuccessfully to dismiss the action on grounds of forum non conveniens, contending that Ecuador would be the proper forum. Judge Broderick heard the case without a jury, after which he directed entry of judgment in favor of Indasu for the face amount of the Guarantee, $1,500,000.00, plus interest.

Citibank appeals from the judgment, asserting that it was prejudiced substantially by the district court's denial of its motion for dismissal based on forum non conveniens. Citibank also argues that the district court misapplied Ecuadorian law when it read into the Guarantee the "course of conduct" and "intent" of the parties to the guaranteed contract, thus varying the purported preconditions of that instrument without Citibank's consent. Finally, Citibank contends that the district court erred in finding that the preconditions had not been violated.

We affirm the district court's denial of the motion to dismiss on grounds of forum non conveniens. We reverse, however, the judgment of liability arising from the Guarantee because, under Ecuadorian law, a guarantee containing written conditions cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the guarantor.


861 F.2d 375 (1988)

INDASU INTERNATIONAL, C.A., Plaintiff-Appellee,


CITIBANK, N.A., Defendant-Appellant.

No. 1342, Docket 88-7249. United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit.

Argued August 19, 1988.

Decided November 17, 1988.

New York Law School location: File #625, Box #122