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The principal issue raised on this appeal is whether a criminal suspect who passively obeys a law enforcement agent's stern request to accompany him to his field office for questioning has been "seized" within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The issue arises on an appeal by Efrain Adames and Abraham Ceballos from judgments of the District Court for the Southern District of New York (Gerard L. Goettel, Judge) convicting them on their pleas of guilty to counterfeiting and conspiracy violations, 18 U.S.C. §§ 2, 371, 474 (1982). Both defendants reserved the right to challenge on appeal the denial of their motions to suppress physical evidence seized and statements made at or about the time of their arrests. Because Secret Service agents placed Adames in investigatory custody before they had probable cause to arrest him, we reverse the District Court's denial of Adames' suppression motion. We affirm Judge Goettel's denial of Ceballos' suppression motion.

Judge Miner's dissent begins on page 51


812 F.2d 42 (1987)

UNITED STATES of America, Appellee, v. Abraham CEBALLOS and Efrain Adames, Defendants-Appellants.

Nos. 371, 516, Dockets 86-1273, 86-1299.

United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit.

Argued December 2, 1986.

Decided February 13, 1987.

New York Law School location: File #277, Box 119